Planning is one of the central tasks in the corporate governance process and aims at the systematic preparation of decisions to determine future events.
While planning in the narrower sense (i.p.) includes the systematic preparation and shaping of the future, the entire management process closes the further steps of the
Decision (planning in the first place), the realization and control, in the form of a feedback, so that the following overall process results:
The above description represents the management process in terms of the phase theorem (see STEFFEN, BORN, 1987, p.217 ff). In the sense of the phase theorem, each phase provides new preliminary information that can form the basis for re-thinking in the following phases. For business consulting this means that the planning process has to be restarted with the new information. This provides a set of alternatives from which the operations manager can choose.
The selection of a suitable alternative depends essentially on the expectations regarding future environmental constellations, with the problem that expectations about future environmental situations are hardly justified in a world of turbulent changes and discontinuities (see Bockelmann, Odening, 2000, p.21). , This results in the additional task in the planning to consider a sufficient flexibility of adaptation.
The conception of a consulting concept requires that not the actual implementation is in the foreground, but rather the preparation of a decision of the strategic company orientation, so that in the sense of this work the term planning as planning i. e. S. must be understood.
The strategy development in the planning process
Strategic business planning is a long-term plan that outlines a company’s long-term focus and can be characterized as a pattern in a stream of decisions.
By definition, the essential task of strategic planning is to identify structural, technical, economic, political and societal changes and developments. Taking this into account, the behavior of the company should be formulated in its various fields of activity. Ie. An essential element of strategic planning is first of all to recognize changes in the environment as early as possible and incorporate them into the current decision. It aims to build up potential for success and to ensure the long-term survival of the company.
Demarcation of strategic from operational planning
One strategy represents the basic orientation of a company. “For strategic planning, this means that decisions are not taken very frequently and, due to their economic importance, must be made very carefully, but with a reasonable amount of information.” (STEFFEN, BORN; 1987, p. 263). “With the transition to operational planning, the planning approach in the different functional areas becomes more detailed. A detailed planning on the basis of the strategic planning is made, which reaches closer to reality in detail. For reasons of planning economics, it is often necessary to dispense with simultaneous overall planning, even if there are various cross-connections and dependencies on other operating areas. As a result, suboptimal solutions are created, especially if there are not enough alternatives. The quoted citations demarcate the different levels of planning strategically and operationally and allow the process of strategic planning to be simplified in a rough way, which is only substantiated in the operative environment. Furthermore, it becomes clear that the strategy formation influences the operational area in such a way that the number of currently possible action alternatives is limited. It also delineates the temporal dimension of the various plans, the strategic long-term plan and the operational plan, which is short-term to existing production capacities or production orientations.
The strategy within the scope of the company goals
The strategic planning process has the important task of winning an alternative from a set of different options for action and evaluating its implementation. Ie. In the first step, the strategy must be formed, the
PORTER is characterized by the following question: How will the company contest the competition, what should the goals of the company be and what measures are necessary to realize these goals?
Certainly, the strategy concept presented by PORTER focuses on the company’s position in the competition. Due to existing market regulations, this narrow definition can only be applied to a limited extent for agriculture, but the agricultural environment is characterized by strong competition in the factor markets, which is impacted by existing conditions on companies’ competitive position. This requires a strategy in the agricultural environment. If one follows OHMAE’s thesis that there is no demand for straits without competition, then the only purpose of strategic planning is to enable a company to obtain a durable lead over its competitors as efficiently as possible. Thus, the strategic planning event can be seen in the following fields:
> Avoiding surprises
> Creation of action flexibility
> Coordination of plans and measures
> Development of targets (in the sense of the above-mentioned rough planning)
> Support learning processes
In this context, the importance of awareness-raising information as well as cferen processing and evaluation becomes clear, the result of which is deliberate action with the result of strategy formulation and strategy selection. Ie. the alternatives of action are examined and evaluated side by side and a selection decision is made, according to the level of information and the expectations, which are aligned with the goals of the entrepreneur. “In the area of strategic planning, limits also result from the recognition that for economic considerations and general cognitions, not all information of interest can be collected. This touches on the entrepreneur in his personality, such as his risk attitude and his need for flexibility.